By Kathleen Pyne
Late within the 19th century, many american citizens have been by way of the theories of Charles Darwin, which contradicted either conventional Christian teachings and the assumption of human supremacy over nature, and via an inflow of international immigrants, who challenged the supremacy of the outdated Anglo-Saxon elite. In reaction, many folks drew convenience from the theories of thinker Herbert Spencer, who held that human society unavoidably develops in the direction of larger and extra non secular forms.
In this illuminating research, Kathleen Pyne explores how Spencer's theories prompted a new release of yank artists. She exhibits how the painters of the Eighteen Eighties and Nineties, fairly John los angeles Farge, James McNeill Whistler, Thomas Dewing and the Boston tuition, and the impressionist painters of the 10, built an paintings devoted to social refinement and religious beliefs and to protecting the Anglo-Saxon elite of which they have been contributors. This linking of visible tradition to the troublesome stipulations of yank lifestyles appreciably reinterprets crucial traits in overdue nineteenth-century American painting.
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Art and the Higher Life: Painting and Evolutionary Thought in Late Nineteenth-Century America by Kathleen Pyne